Stakeholder 1: Audience
For all of the sports, stand design begins and ends with the spectator, and therefore is an important feature that the designing and planning team must consider before anything else. While generally spectators are motivated by the quality of the event experience; it is also important that stadiums provide safe and satisfactory viewing conditions and facilities for large crowds by judicious utilization of resources. Its cost and value drivers largely depend on the design factors as mentioned:
a. Spectator Comfort
The primary determinants of spectator comfort relate to space standards on the tier, provision of facilities and ease of navigation. The objective is not to pack as many people as possible into the standing areas of the stadium but to provide an all-seater venues. Quality of seats will also affect spectator satisfaction. This has been driven not only due to the stricter safety regulations, but also by the fact that spectators should be able to enjoy watching the sport in comfort, justifying investment associated with spectator comfort which is influenced by:
- Increased footprint, gross floor areas, tier and roof area to provide equivalent capacity
- Extensive fit-out to provide more facilities such as WCs
- Requirements for access facilities for boxes and club seats
- Design of circulation and signage to facilitate safe movement of crowds.
It is generally required that all seating complies with the current safety regulations. It is the responsibility of the stadium operator to make sure of the safety of all those visiting the venue paramount. Access and exit to and from the seats, both in normal and emergency situations, needs to be carefully planned with the help of relevant consultants and local authorities. The design principles for planning of circulation include:
- Clear routes to get people to their seats;
- Providing concourse space and exit routes to allow for safe evacuation in emergency conditions;
- Subdivision of stand, concourse, concessions, and facility areas to break crowds down into manageable numbers. This subdivision provides the module for planning features such as exits, walkways and services.
Sightlines and viewing distances are determined by the sport, the size and layout of the stadium and the orientation of stands relative to the pitch. Distance from the game action, the ability to see over the heads of the spectators and the absence of obstructed views are the key drivers. It is important that all spectators should have an unobstructed and complete view of the field of play by considering the overall ground capacity and by the available development footprint.
In present times, the modern stadiums have become a venue of packaged entertainment and therefore apart from providing a better match experience, they must comprise provisions to make other varied spectacular events possible too.